Mutual funds began to be known in the 19th century in America under the name of Mutual Fund (mutual fund), with free translation “of investment funds for the same purpose”. Meanwhile in the UK, a mutual fund known as the Unit Trust, which means the unit (share) trust. In other words, if you invest in mutual funds, investors will receive a number of units which the management is entrusted to other parties. According to Article 1 of the Capital Market Act 1995, the definition of a mutual fund is a container used to collect funds from investors to be invested in a portfolio of securities (portfolio investment) by the investment manager. Therefore, mutual funds, there are three main elements are interrelated, namely:
Public Collection Fund
By collecting funds from pemodalnya, allowing investors-investors who have minimal funds can contribute investing in securities.
Investment Funds in the Form of Securities Portfolio
In the mean effects here are securities, such as promissory notes, commercial paper, shares, bonds, proof of the debt, participation units, collective investment contracts, futures contracts on securities and any derivative of the effect, both effects of debt and the equity, such as warrants (short-term debt securities). The portfolio is managed by mutual funds can be a collection of some kind of effect.
Managed by the Investment Manager
The investment manager is the party whose business is managing a portfolio of securities for investors or managing collective investment portfolio to a group of customers. The investment manager does not include insurance companies, pension funds and banks conducting their own business activities based on the legislation in force.
To obtain the maximum investment and optimal, as an investor you should first understand the characteristics of various types of mutual funds. You can choose what type of mutual fund that is appropriate for your investment choices. The types of mutual funds circulating in Indonesia are as follows:
Money Market Fund (Money Market Funds)
Mutual funds are only invested in money market instruments invitation maturity period of less than 1 (one) year. Forms of investment instruments can be either Time Deposit (Deposit Futures), certicate of Deposit (Certificate of Deposit), Bank Indonesia Certificates (SBIs), Money Market Securities (SBPU) and various types of investment instruments other money market. The goal is to maintain liquidity and capital maintenance. The risk is relatively lower than other types of mutual funds.
Fixed Income Fund (Fixed Income Funds)
This mutual fund invests at least 80% of its assets in debt securities or bonds. The goal is to produce stable returns. Relatively greater risk than money market funds.
Mutual Fund Shares (Equity Funds)
This mutual fund invests at least 80% of its assets in equity securities. The goal of shares or unit price growth in the long term. Relatively higher risk than money market funds and fixed income funds, but produces a high return rate.
Balanced Fund (Balance Mutual Funds)
Type Mutual funds are allocated their investment funds in the form of a varied investment portfolio. Investment instruments may take the form of shares and combined with fixed income (bonds). The goal for the growth of prices and incomes. Moderate risk with a relatively high rate of return than fixed income funds.
Meanwhile, Bapepam on July 29, 2005 issued regulations IV.C.4 number of “Guidelines for the management of type New Investment Fund”. Types of mutual funds are:
Protected Fund (Capital Protected Funds)
This fund provides investment protection for the beginning investor through portfolio management mechanism. The investment manager will invest some of the funds it manages in debt securities that are included in the investment grade (investment grade), so that the value of debt securities at maturity at least be able to cover the amount of value in protection.
Guaranteed Investment Fund (Guaranteed Funds)
Mutual fund provides a guarantee that the investor will receive at least the amount of the initial investment at maturity as the requirements are met. These guarantees made through the appointment of the Guarantor or the Guarantor, that is, institutions that can guarantee and has obtained a business license from the competent authority. Investment managers are required to invest at least 80% of the net asset value of mutual funds under its management in debt securities that fall into the category of investment grade (investment grade).
Mutual Fund Index (Index Funds)
Mutual funds portfolio consists effect on securities that are part of a set of securities of an index that becomes a reference. Investment managers are required to invest at least 80% of the net asset value of mutual funds in securities that are part of the collection of the effect of the reference index.