Basically, Allah Ta’ala obliges fasting to all the Muslims in the month of Ramadan and is done directly for those who have no udzur like sickness and safar or with qadha ‘for those who can not afford to run it. For those who have udzur and there is possibility udzurnya lost after Ramadan, then fasting is done by way of qadha ‘.
But, for those Muslims who are no longer able to fast like old people and sick people who have no hope of healing, God gives them relief by feeding the poor in exchange for their fast, called fidyah. This is based on the word of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala:
وعلى الذين يطيقونه فدية طعام مسكين
“And it is obligatory for the hard-doers (if they do not fast) to pay fidyah, (ie): to feed a poor man.” (Surat al-Baqarah: 184)
But there are problems felt by Muslims who are unable to fast during Ramadan, which is how the dosage in paying fidyah. Some say that we can be paid according to the nominal price of our meal for one portion multiplied by the number of fasts that must be replaced, others suggested by feeding the poor as much as 1 mud (1.25 kilograms of cereals, such as wheat, rice and others).
Paying fidyah is set based on the number of days left for fasting. Every 1 day someone leaves the fast, then he is obliged to pay fidyah to 1 poor people.
While the technical implementation, whether willing per day or want as well as a month, back to the breadth of each person. If someone is comfortable giving fidyah every day, please do. Conversely, if more comfortable to be given at once for 1 month fasting, please be. The important amount of the dosage is not less than that set. So it can be concluded that fidyah is only given to poor people such as zakat fitrah.
Magnitude Fidyah and the Performing People
According to Muhammad saw, the form of fidyah in the form of food, is usually the staple food in every country different from one another. Staple food can be in ready-to-eat form or just raw materials, both are allowed, because there are no specific rules that bind.
For the size of fidyah, how much the amount should be spent, the scholars have some different views. Here’s an explanation:
Some scholars such as Imam As-Syafi’I, Imam Malik and Imam An-Nawawi stipulated that the size of the fidyah to be paid to every 1 poor person is 1 mud of wheat according to the measure of the mud of the Prophet shalallahu’alaihi wasallam. That is mud is the palm of the hand raised up to accommodate food (like a person praying). Mud is a term that refers to a volume size, not a measure of weight. In the book Al-Fiqhul Islami Wa Adillatuhu mentioned when measured by the size of the present day, 1 mud equivalent to 675 grams or 0.688 liters.
Two Mud or Half Sha ‘
Some other scholars such as Abu Hanifah argue ½ sha ‘or 2 mud wheat with the size of mud Rasulullah shalallahu’alaihi wasallam or equivalent to half sha’ dates or flour. Equivalent to giving lunch and dinner to full 1 poor person. Some scholars are approximately ½ sha ‘weighing 1.5 kg of staple food.
It has been mentioned in the fatwa of Lajnah Daimah: “Whenever the doctor decides that a sickness suffered by a person who is not fasting therefore can not be expected to be healed, he may not fast and must feed for every day 1 poor person half a sha ‘from the staple food of a country such as dates or others, if it has fed a poor number of days left behind then it has been sufficient. “
One Sha ‘
This is the opinion of the Hanafiites, such as Imam Al-Kasani in Bada’i’i wa As-Shana’i ‘. One sha ‘is equivalent to 4 mud, equal to the amount of zakat fitrah paid. When weighed, 1 sha ‘weighs 2,176 grams. When measured volume, 1 sha ‘equivalent to 2.75 liters.
From the difference of ulama above the fidyah level is at least one mud, but most of all we take half a sha ‘or give a serving of cooked food to every poor. Well, who have the obligation to pay the fidyah? Check out the following urain:
People Must Pay Fidyah
Here is a person who must pay fidyah, because it can not fast:
People who are sick and in general set hard to heal again,
Parents or weak who are no longer strong fast,
Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding when fasting is worried about the child they conceive or breastfeed. asuransi pendidikan anak
Time, Shape, and Fidyah Payment Method
The essence of the fidyah payment is to replace 1 day of abandoned fast by feeding 1 poor person. However, the payment model can be implemented in 2 ways:
Cooking or making food, then inviting the poor a number of days left during the month of Ramadan, as did Anas bin Malik Radhiallahu ‘Anhu’s best friend when he reached the age of twilight and could no longer fast as described in the following hadith:
“That he was not able to fast for a year ago he made a large tray of porridge and invited thirty poor people and fed them. (HR Ad-Daruquthni and uttered by Shaykh al-Albani in the book of Irwa ‘. “
Giving the poor in the form of uncooked food. However, it should also be given something to be a side dish.
If you or you have a brother who is obliged to pay fidyah, payment time is determined as the following description:
Fidyah Payment Time
One can pay fidyah, on the same day when he does not perform fasting. Or ending until the last day of Ramadan, as did by Anas bin Malik’s best friend when he was old.
What should not be done is a fidyah payment made before Ramadan. For example: There are sick people who can not be expected anymore, then when the month of Sha’ban has come, he has already paid fidyah first. So, this is not allowed. He must wait until the month of Ramadan has actually entered, then he may pay fidyah when that day or can be piled at the end of Ramadan.
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Should the fidyah be in the form of giving food and can not be replaced with money? The study about it you can see in the following description:
Fidyah with Money
According to KH Arwani Faishal Vice Chairman of the Bahtsul Mas’ail Institution PBNU: “Fidyah is a substitute for an abandoned worship, in the form of food given to the poor. By observing the definition and purpose of fidyah which is a compensation to the poor, it is possible to give fidyah in the form of money. Because if the poor, have enough food, then better to give fidyah in the form of money, in order to be used for other purposes “.
Jumhur ulama oblige to exclude food based on Al-Qur’an, but Hanafiyah madhhab allow to pay its value. It is better to take the opinion of the jumhur ulama, unless fidyah is issued a number of values more bringing maslahat then allowed.
So it can be concluded that fidyah obligations may be implemented by replacing money, if more useful. But if the money will be used for spree, then obligate to give it in the form of staple food
Once you understand the fidyah provisions above, then the final part of this article will explain how to pay fidyah:
How to Pay Fidyah
Fidyah is given to the poor in accordance with the number of days left, ie one fidyah for one day for one poor and the giving can be done at once. Suppose we leave the fast 30 days then we just pay 30 portions of food to 30 poor people alone.
Can also be given only to 1 poor person for 30 days. As for the provision of giving all the fidyah to 1 poor, some scholars forbid it, but Imam Nawawi rahimahullah in the book of Al-Majmu ‘allow it. Similarly Al Mawardi said, “It is okay to issue a fidyah to one poor person at a time. There is no dispute among the scholars. “
Follow The Most Preferred Way
It is true to discuss about fidyah there are some differences from scholars about the magnitude and mode of payment. You should follow the ultimate or most recommended by the scholars. Is this the best? Wallahu Ta’ala A’lam.