Education is an important aspect in the life of a country. So important position, even yardstick forward whether or not a country is measured from education. The education system is applied every country is different. It is influenced by many things such as socio-cultural, environmental, historical, and other things. In applying the education system, each country must have the consideration of factors other than the implementation of the objectives in the long term and short term.
Purposes of applying the appropriate education system will lead to the creation of quality human resources in accordance with the ideals of the nation. Why is the education of a country needs to be planned and organized in such a system? This is because, in the absence of a clear system regarding education in a country, direction, keberjalanan, as well as the desired output becomes unclear or gray.
Malaysia and Indonesia are two countries that have the same stock, the adjacent area, which is almost the same language, as well as the various cultures that are also almost the same. Based on the similarities of the two countries grew an official diplomatic relationship harmonious. However, not infrequently because the equation, often conflict between the two. For example, conflicts Indonesia – Malaysia in the era of President Sukarno, the disputed border islands of Sipadan and Ligitan, Ambalat Island disputes, conflicting claims reog culture of East Java Ponorogo by Malaysia, and several other such cases diplomacy Indonesian Workers (TKI) and asylum. Although through the hot-cold relationship, the two countries remain coexistence and mutual international cooperation in various fields.
Regarding education, the two countries share a great interest in this field. However, if the system is applied and keberjalanannya in these two countries together? Following are some of the differences that characterize education in the two countries, Indonesia and Malaysia:
In Indonesia, education was originally given directly by parents or local community leaders, before the entry of Hindu culture. Education learned this at first revolves around the moral and spiritual life means meeting the needs of economic / their life. Along with the entry of various foreign cultures are brought to Indonesia also influence the condition of education in Indonesia.
It can be said that education in Indonesia is strongly influenced by the cultures berkembangan in it. Education in Indonesia stems from the development of religion as in the days of the Hindu kingdom in Java, Bali and Sumatra, and the kingdoms of Islam in Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi. Educational institutions that existed at the time the main form of religious teaching materials.
At the time of the kingdom of Islam, education is taught in two forms, namely education in Langgar and education at boarding school. Violating which is a place of worship of Muslims used as a place of learning. While education in schools, a teaching which teaches students educated in the lodges. Or boarding lodge is managed by the foundation or joint costs of society islam religion. Pupils at the school called the students, they learn in separate cubicles and most of the time you are outdoors to plant crops or other activities.
In the Dutch colonial period, education is implemented in Indonesia that Western-style education. The schools that existed at that time Western-oriented. At first, Western-style education is only for the elite. But along with the development of the times, the bottom layers of people also get the same opportunities in terms of education. At that time, the school to use the introduction of regional languages, but also some use introductory Dutch language. Education today is intended to establish quality resources in the fields of industry and economy, such as administrative personnel, technical personnel, agricultural workers, and other two or three grade status.
In Malaysia, education has evolved in line with the development and progress of this country. Evolution education is the pramerdeka era (before 1957), the post-independence era (1957-1970), the basis of new economic era (1971 -1990), the days of the basic development of the country (1991-2000), and the days of the basic insight that the country continues today , At first, the system of education in Malaysia using lodge run in madrassas and religious schools. This school has a more structured kuruikulum, sailed to the scheduled time, adequate facilities and infrastructures. The school’s aim is to deliver high moral resources. In addition to the cottage school, those who use the vernacular schools in the mother tongue teaching system. The language used among them are Malay, Chinese and Tamil.
In the days of British colonialism, education in Malaysia has the characteristics of the curriculum applied schools with one another differently, the location of the school for each of the separate, each type of special schools to follow the people, the language of instruction is different as Chinese School-language introduction to Mandarin, and school introduction Tamil speaking Tamil. At that time, the colonial system using ‘monitoral system’ where teachers coming from the UK and improvements in the quality of the school. The teachers at that time were given a professional job training and sent to Raffles College.
Education in Indonesia covering the entire education held in Indonesia, whether structured or not. Education in Indonesia authority in the hands of the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia (Kemendikbud). Indonesia requires 9 years of education program to all wargan country. Nine years covering basic education in Primary Schools / Islamic elementary schools for 6 years plus 3 years of secondary education in Junior High School / Madrasah Tsanawiyah. The communities were given the freedom to choose the type of school and where they will go to school. This time also, the government has been supporting the infrastructure in the form of books as well as other supporting facilities.
Education in Indonesia keberjalanannya regulated by Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System. Curriculum applied in Indonesia has always experienced a renewal and repair in accordance with the needs of society. Educational curriculum that applied the Curriculum 2013, which was originally the Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC).
Meanwhile, the education system in Malaysia is under the authority of the Ministry of Pelajaran Malaysia. In Malaysia, citizens can be educated out of school belonging to the kingdom, private schools or as individuals. The education system must be taken that the elementary and secondary schools. Although the form of government is the kingdom, but the kingdom does not have the right to determine the curriculum or teaching methods should be applied. All authority has been fully delegated to the Ministry Pelajaran Malaysia, while for higher education regulations set by the Ministry of High pengajians Malaysia established in 2004. From 2003 until today, Malaysia has been using English as the language of instruction in certain subjects, a case of science and mathematics.
As only with other countries, Indonesia has applied education in the teaching system. Qualification consists of:
Early childhood education programs
The existence of early childhood education shows the full attention of the Government of Indonesia to the development of education for the children of Indonesia. This education is based on Law No. 20 of 2003, Article 1 Clause 14 of the National Education System, which states that the Early Childhood Education (ECD) is a development efforts aimed at children from birth to the age of 6 years are accomplished by providing stimulus education to promote the growth and jasamani and spiritually so that children have the readiness to enter further education. In early childhood, teaching staff come from professionals who had studied early childhood education before.
Basic education is education taken during the period of 9 years, namely in the Elementary School / Islamic elementary schools for six years and Junior High School / MTs for 3 years. Basic education is also given financial assistance by the government to support keberjalanannya. Help from the government named the School Operational Assistance (BOS) is intended to meet needs such as books and other school facilities.
Medium education in Indonesia can be reached through High School (SMA) / Vocational School (SMK) / Madrasah Aliyah. The middle school is taken within a period of 3 years, and the students were then directed towards areas of interest before continuing their education to a higher level.
Higher education is a more specific level that directs individuals to produce professional quality resources.
Similarly, Indonesia, Malaysia also has several levels in education namely:
Preschool education or the so-called ‘Tadika’ to teach children from the age of 4-6 years. This education is not compulsory in the education system in Malaysia. Tadika school organized by the government or private parties. In addition Tadika school, most of the National School has a preschool class. This particular class is intended for children from low-income families.
Low education in Malaysia reached during a period of 6 years at the age of 7 to 12 years. Mandatory subjects taught are Malay and English. Grammar school in Malaysia is divided into two types, namely: the National School and the National Type Schools. For curriculum applied in both schools alike. Differences that characterize these two schools is the language of instruction. To the National School use Malay as the language of instruction, while the School type using Bahasa Kebangsaan Tamil or Mandarin.
Secondary School in Malaysia last for 5 years. The language used as an introduction is Malay for all subjects except Science and Mathematics. In this same school, students will be directed to enter science majors (science) or arts (arts). In this case the student is given the freedom to choose their own, but science majors tend to be more popular. During their secondary education, students are required to attend extracurricular activities such as General Group (Uniformed Groups), Performing Arts (Performing Arts), and Community Clubs (Clubs and Societies), Sports and Games (Sports and Games).
Education is education that provides an opportunity to study the level of 6 in various educational institutions like the Polytechnic. Tier 6 is composed of tiers and tiers ah rend6 6 above pursued over two years. The school is reserved for those who want to continue on to higher education in Malaysia.
High recitation is a program of higher education in Malaysia. In this level, the royal provide subsidies or scholarships are sizeable in various universities in Malaysia. In practice, this high recitals arranged by the Ministry of High pengajians Malaysia.
That education is the road taken students to develop their potential in the educational process and is based on the purpose of education. In Indonesia, there are several educational paths namely:
Formal education is education held in formal schools in general. In this study, the path taken terkategori clearly ranging from basic education to higher education.
Non-formal education is an education to be taken apart in public schools. Examples of non-formal schools of them namely Taman Pendidikan Qur’an (TPA) that is taught in every mosque, Sunday School is housed in the church, music lessons, cooking lessons, language courses, tutoring and other courses.
Informal education is an education that is not taken in schools or institutions of other courses. Informal education is derived from the family environment and the surrounding environment. Informal education is not taught directly but through everyday actions of conscious and responsible.
type of Education
Education is a kind of group that is based on the educational goals of an education. In Indonesia, there are several types of education namely:
The education consists of primary and secondary education that promotes the formation of the base of the educational sciences in the minds of students to further higher education. Forms of public education is elementary school (SD), junior high school (SMP) and senior high school (SMA).
An intermediate tingkta education that prepares students to be ready to work in a particular field eg machine technicians, computer technicians, and others. This form of education is vocational high school (SMK).
A higher education undergraduate and graduate programs are directed primarily on the acquisition of specific knowledge as well as print resources educated and qualified.
A higher education after undergraduate program. The program is usually taken to meet professional standards for certain professional categories such as doctors and psychologists.
Higher education is to produce skilled resources and experts in a particular field of applied. A vocational diploma level 4 which is equivalent to an undergraduate program (S-1).
An education from elementary to higher education in the field of religion. The purpose of this study is to create a resource that has a high degree of knowledge mastery of religious teachings.
An education for learners with special needs or who have extraordinary intelligence. Inclusive education was organized independently or in the form of Schools (SLB).
Similarly, Indonesia, Malaysia also has some kind of education in them namely:
Is a school that uses Malay as introduction.
Is one type of school seeded in Malaysia.
National Type Schools
The school is using Chinese or Tamil as a language introduction.
Is a school that dibangunt to improve the interaction between people.
Islamic Religious School
An existing school in Malaysia for a long time. Usually the students of this school to continue his studies in the area of Pakistan or Egypt.
A school that implements the technology advances by using computers and other modern technologies.
School of Engineering and Vocational
Is a school that provide opportunities for students who have special skills in science and technology. Graduates of this school is needed in the field of industrial countries.
Full boarding school (Science School)
The school is intended for experts needed Malaysia. The school is implementing admissions system with the capability of academic and sporting talent and great leadership. This school became a modeling school or sample after the British Boarding School.